Working Paper Series

The BTRM Working Paper Series serves to highlight recent developments in the fields of banking, financial markets, economics and econometrics. Articles are subject to review by the BTRM Faculty prior to publication. We welcome submissions that are previously unpublished, we are also happy to reproduce with permission articles published previously in trade magazines or academic journals. Articles should be between 2000 and 6000 words in length (excluding Appendices and Bibliography) and submitted as a Word document. For further information please get in touch with the BTRM Faculty.

BTRM Working Paper Series, #19
Liquidity Leverage Ratio: A Simple non-risk-based backstop for LCR model risk

by Namitha Perera, HSBC, June 2024

Our latest Working Paper is by Namitha Perera, who is with Group Treasury at HSBC. His paper addresses potential model risk issues associated with the Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) metric, and proposes an alternate supplemental liquidity risk metric as a possible solution to this risk.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #18
The Changing Business Landscape: Balance Sheet Management Priorities for Resilient Banks

by Dr Diyama Abu Laban & Professor Moorad Choudhry, March 2024

Banks come in very many different shapes and sizes.

In the 2020s there are banks that offer a sophisticated digital-only service with not just financial products accessible via their “app” but also the goods and services of partner firms in different industries. At the same time, there are banks
that do not offer any kind of digital service via desktop internet or app at all, and whose customers continue to interact with it via physical branch, post and/or telephone. Innovation, together with efficient and helpful customer service, are
the preserve of only some banks.

And yet…

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #16
Quantum Computing: Applications to banking

by Giuseppe Colucci, January 2021

Many financial institutions are currently investigating the possibilities of benefiting (and securing themselves) from the quantum leap, i.e. the advent of quantum computation on a large scale.

Portfolio optimisation, Monte Carlo simulations and pricing derivatives are only a few of the many applications for which a quantum computer will outperform even the fastest supercomputers.

This brief article presents an overview of the applications of quantum computing to banking.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #15
SOFR Overnight Index Swap Curve Construction

by Ioannis Rigopoulos, December 2020

We are very excited about this article written by Ioannis Rigopoulos from Deriscope, which will be of interest to any market practitioner involved in transitioning from USD Libor to Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) and using SOFR-linked interest rate swaps for hedging.

In a paper notable for its accessibility and instant applicability, the author presents a step-by-step guide to constructing the SOFR OIS yield curve, with some very handy Excel inputs and outputs exhibits shown as well. There is also useful discussion of the practical issues associated with constructing a continuous discount function, and the author solves these issues neatly.

For those requiring a refresher on the SOFR rate and its calculation there is detail on that too. Very highly recommended.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #14
Bond Markets: “Dirt” in the Clean Price.

by K. Boovendran, September 2020

Bond market pricing follows age-old and time-honoured principles of corporate finance and present value. A dealer of fixed income securities focuses on yield, and the price is calculated by using the PV principle. Accuracy is taken for granted. However the whole concept of bond mathematics makes a number of assumptions, which are not necessarily realistic.

The author finds two discrepancies in the calculation of dirty price and accrued interest which causes the clean price to be distorted. He shows how and why the formulae used are incorrect, and that the present value factor is over-estimated by the use of inappropriate formulae. This results in over-payment of the dirty price to the seller. Within the dirty price, there is over-payment on account of accrued interest, with the issue being that often full accrued interest is paid instead of its present value. Both these factors distort the clean price, leading to improper accounting of the transactions.

The author suggests a modified compounding formula to rectify the distortions. Both the existing and suggested formulae have been tested for their accuracy. The author concludes by discussing comparative advantages of using the modified compounding formula and the practical implications for fixed income fund managers.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #13
Covid-19 Policy Impact on the Global Banking Sector.

by Harish Nair (Under Guidance of Professor Krzysztof Jajuga, Wroclaw University of Economics, Poland), September 2020

We’re pleased to present a comprehensive review of the current and potential impact of the Covid-19 market-wide stress event on banks around the world. The author is Harish Nair, who has previously published with The BTRM. We’re grateful to receive his submission which includes accessible and detailed coverage and exhibits.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #12
Correlation Coefficient of Indian Oil Market Stocks and currency pairs.

by Harish Nair, June 2020

Harish Nair, who is with the National Bank of Oman, has written a working paper on the correlation coefficient of oil sector stocks in the Indian market, with a look at selected currency pairs over the last 20 years.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #11
Primer: Accessible guide on estimation of the Nelson-Siegel yield curve.

by Raphael Franco Chaves, December 2018

Having recently posted about the importance of fitting an accurate term structure, it’s great to be able to present this elegant item from Raphael Franco Chaves of John Deere Financial, Iowa, USA. He has written a succinct and easy to implement guide for the Nelson-Siegel yield curve, with an accompanying Excel worksheet and sample output results. Enjoy…

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #10
The untapped benefits of Machine Learning systems in Banking

by Professor Moorad Choudhry, March 2018

Ahead of my more detailed article on this topic in “The European Finance Review” next month, the link below is to a short piece on the same subject that appeared in the Spring 2018 issue of “International Banker“, the members’ publication of the Worshipful Company of International Bankers.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #9
Hedge Fund Returns Replication

by Jaafar Husain – Quant Analyst, Bank ABC, October 2017

In this article we will introduce an effective statistical approach to replicate hedge fund returns. The approach is based on a carefully designed stepwise regression procedure. The objectives of the regression procedure are to 1) identify the strategies and markets to which a hedge fund manager is exposed, and 2) to analyze the progression of these exposures over time. While a hedge fund manager will continually change their overall exposure to exploit market anomalies, we wouldn’t expect a manager who for many years traded in the long/short equity space to suddenly switch to the stressed equity space. The regression procedure is designed to capture such strategy drifts.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #8
The Many Faces of Short Volatility Trades – TARF vs. Hedge Funds

by Jaafar Husain – Quant Analyst, Bank ABC, February 2017

In this article we will touch upon a very important concept known as “short volatility strategy” and bring some insight into the intricate relationships that exist among seemingly different asset classes.

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #7
Liquidity strategy – new rules or new game?

by David Castle, September 2016

We welcome back David Castle from Waltham Partners for his second article in the WP series. The article is entitled “Liquidity Strategy: New Rules or New Game?”, and as David writes in the abstract, “This paper discusses the impact of Basel III liquidity ratios on treasury with cash to invest or manage, and the evolution of investment strategies in response to these changes.”

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #6
Establishing A Broad Client Liabilities Strategy

by David Castle, September 2016

One of the key tenets of a coherent strategic ALM policy is an integrated approach to raising customer liabilities. When we say integrated we mean an articulated strategy that seeks to create the optimum liabilities mix and one that complements the asset mix side of the balance sheet. The sixth in our series of Working Papers is authored by David Castle and is entitled “Establishing a Broad Client Liabilities Strategy”. Mr Castle presents one way to make an excellent start in getting such an optimising process underway.”

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #5
An investigation of hypothetical variance-covariance matrix stress-testing

by Quintin Rayer, February 2016

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #4
KVA – Profit Deferral and Return on Capital Implications for Pricing, Hedging and Accounting

by Lincoln Hannah (FIS, formerly Sungard), April 2016

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #3
A case study in carry trade and cross pair allegiance switching, pre and post 2008.

by Brian Twomey, (Published previously in the Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, Vol. 5, Issue 5, November 2015.)

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #2
Optimal Funding Term of Posted Collateral.

by Bert-Jan Nauta, August 2015

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BTRM Working Paper Series, #1
Basel III LCR, deposits strategy and potential business model impact.

by Professor Moorad Choudhry, April 2015

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